Русскоязычный заголовок: Обзор деревообрабатывающей отрасли Малайзии
Огляд деревообробної галузі Малайзії (англ.)
Wood Based Industry
Sawn timber veneer and panel products include plywood and other reconstituted panel products such as particleboard/chipboard/fibreboard;mouldings and builders' joinery and carpentry (BJC) such as doors/windows and its components, panels and flooring board/parquet. furniture and furniture components. The industry is predominantly owned by Malaysian and it is estimated that 80%-90% of the companies comprise small and medium-size (SME) establishments.
Most of the larger sawmills, veneer and plywood mills are located in Sabah and Sarawak. Mills in Sabah and Sarawak utilise tropical wood species for the production of sawn timber, veneer, plywood and other veneered panel products. More than 45 per cent of the plywood mills and 60 per cent of the mouldings millsare located in Sabah and Sarawak.
The downstream processing mills for the production of fibreboard, BJC as well as furniture and furniture components are mainly located in Peninsular Malaysia. These mills mainly utilise rubberwood which are sourced from sustainable plantations.
Malaysian furniture manufacturers produce a wide range of furniture from office, kitchen, bedroom, dining room, occasional, living room, upholstered furniture/sofa, outdoor and garden furniture. Furniture is made from not only wood, but also all types of materials such as rattan, metal, fabrics, plastic, glass, marble and other composite materials. The furniture manufacturers are located mainly in Johor, Selangor, Sarawak, Perak and Melaka.
An established industry with 1,202 sawmills in operations (Peninsular Malaysia (667), Sabah (175) and Sarawak (180). Export of sawn timber in 2008 amounted to RM2.6 billion with exports mainly to Thailand, the Netherlands, Japan, People's Republic of China and UAE.
In 2008, export of plywood amounted to RM6.4 billion. The range of plywood produced includes common veneer-faced plywood, overlaid plywood such as printed paper and polyester plywood, plywood for concrete formwork and marine plywood. Malaysian plywood has achieved international standards such as Japan Agricultural Standards (JAS), British Standards (BS) and International Hardwood Products Association Standards (IHPA) for the US market and Harmonised European Standards (EN) for Europe market. Malaysia currently is the largest exporters of tropical plywood in the world with 180 mills in operation.
In view of the need to maximise the utilisation of wood resources, the industry has diversified into the production of high value-added reconstituted panel products such as particleboard and medium density fibreboard. The particleboard industry has grown and currently there are 16 mills in operation. The industry, over the years has successfully exported its products particularly for use in the furniture industry.
Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF)
The MDF industry currently has 14 plants with a total annual installed capacity of 2.9 million. For 2008, the export of MDF totaled at RM1.2 billion. The industry has started utilising acacia mangium and mixed hardwood to produce MDF as alternatives to rubber wood. Currently, Malaysia is the world's third largest exporter of MDF, after Germany and France. MDF from Malaysia has attained international standards such as BS, Asia-Pacific: Japan Australia and New zealand (JANS), and EN standards. A number of companies have also ventured into the production of laminated/printed MDF.
Veneered Panels Products
Besides MDF, the industry has continued to develop engineered products from veneer such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL), laminated veneer cross-band (LVB) and laminated veneer sandwich (LVS) to meet the demand for structural and industrial applications. The industry combines modern technology with the efficient use of natural resources to produce these products for the export market.Besides being environmentally friendly, these products, with enhanced structural quality to meet different climatic conditions, are increasingly being used in the construction industry.
Mouldings and BJC
BJC products include architectural mouldings (panelling, skirting, crowns and chair rails), doors/windows and accessories, wooden flooring and wooden railings. Exports of mouldings and BJC are mostly to the USA, UK, Australia, Singapore and Denmark. In 2008, exports of mouldings were RM745.2 million while the exports of BJC amounted to RM1.35 billion. The major products exported were wooden floorings and wooden doors. To date, there are 344 mouldings and joinery plants in Malaysia.
Furniture and Fixtures
Malaysia furniture industry is highly export-oriented with over 90% of its production exported. Malaysia ranks as the tenth largest exporter of furniture in the world and second in Asia after the People's Republic of China, with exports to more than 160 countries.In 2008, exports of wooden furniture amounted to RM6.8 billion. The main export destinations were the USA, Japan and Australia. The export value of furniture is expected to reach RM10 billion by 2010.
Among the furniture exported are kitchen furniture, bedroom furniture, upholstered with wooden frame and office furniture of which over 80 per cent are made from rubber wood, a light coloured, medium hardwood popularly called ‘Malaysian oak' . The export of garden/outdoor furniture from tropical hardwood is mainly for the European market . The solid tropical wood species used are known for their durability under different climatic conditions. Besides these traditional markets, Malaysian furniture has gained access to the markets in New Zealand, South America, Middle East, Africa and Russia. Malaysia is a major supplier of office furniture to the Middle East market.
Malaysian furniture companies numbering about 1,800 are mainly located in Peninsular Malaysia. A high concentration of furniture establishments are in Johor (Muar and Kluang), Selangor (Klang and Sungai Buloh) and Melaka (Bukit Rambai).
Malaysian furniture manufacturers have given greater emphasis on the finishing, design and production of higher quality products with own-brand mostly for the export market. Some of these companies have moved from supplying ready-to-assemble furniture towards manufacturing own-designed furniture.Recognizing the need to move from designing manually to the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD), AutoCAD is one of the popular software system used by Malaysian furniture manufacturers today. In order to produce designs which are both functional and aesthetic, Malaysian furniture companies have ventured to utilise a wide range of other materials such as metal, glass, plastic and other composite materials in combination with rubber wood or other wood species for the increasingly sophisticated market.
Investment Opportunities in the Wood-based Industry
Malaysia's focus in the development of the wood-based industry is in value added downstream products.This should be further supported through the development of the industry in an integrated manner, combining both manufacturing activities and research and development including product design and market promotion. This is important in the development of the wood-based industry as increasing competition from low-cost and resource-rich countries would inevitably force Malaysia out of the low-end markets.
The industry has moved into the production of engineered wood products from other materials such as bamboo, rattan and fibres such as palm biomass (oil palm trunks, empty fruit bunches, kernels), kenaf and other agricultural materials (cocoa, coconut, sago and sugar cane) for the production of particleboard, fibreboard and composite products. The reconstituted panel products industry has also diversified into the manufacture of high value-added reconstituted composite products such fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPC). The products can be in the form of board/profile, and suitable for use in industrial, construction, automotive and furniture industries.
Engineered wood products can be divided into two categories i.e. structural and non-structural wood products. Structural products include structural plywood, Oriented Strand Board (OSB), structural composite materials, Glued Laminated Timber (Glulam), Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), Strand Lumber (parallel or oriented). Non-structural engineered woods are particleboard and medium density board (MDF). Currently Malaysia wood manufacturers produce structural plywood, LVL, particleboard and MDF.
Currently, the following products are promoted:
- Reconstituted wood-based panel boards or products;
- Wooden solid or other specialised function doors or wooden solid windows;
- Multi-ply parquet
- Design, development and production of wooden furniture
- Insulation for cryogenic vessels
- All wooden products except sawn timber, veneer and plain plywood.*
Note: *Additional promoted activities and products for promoted areas (other than the Federal Territory of Labuan) i.e Sabah, Sarawak, Perlis and the "Eastern Corridor" of Peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, and the district of Mersing in the state of Johor).